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Cat5e is probably the most common networking cable. It is the standard for Ethernet, so almost anyone with a LAN network in their home or office will use Cat5e cables in some capacity. The cable itself is typically an unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable type. The cable jacket holds four twisted-pair copper wires and has RJ-45 connectors.
The Cat5e cable is an enhancement (hence the "e") of the original Category 5 cable. These enhancements include improved performance and support of far-end crosstalk. The unshielded Cat5e is now generally recommended over the original cat5.
Cat5e cables come in two different varieties: stranded and solid conductor. At the most general level, stranded Cat5e cables are more durable and are generally used around the house or office. Solid-conductor Cat5e cables are more efficient but less durable and are generally used in installation work (within walls, ceilings, etc.). In general all Cat5e "patch cables" are stranded, while each solid conductor cable is clearly marked.
The Cat5e's terminating connector is technically an 8P8C modular connector--not an RJ-45 connector. However, the use of the term "RJ-45" is so widespread that insisting on the term "8P8C" would be pedantic at best. We adopt the standard usage of the term "RJ-45" for the connectors of Cat5e cables.
Cat6 Cable is a phone and Ethernet computer cable consisting of 4 pairs intimately twisted together with either a PVC (riser) or Plenum rating.